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European History


New Political Movements

Christian Democratic parties promote social reform, democracy, anti-communism

1968: Students worldwide protest against Vietnam War, overcrowded schools, so-called authoritarianism of older generation

  • French students, workers cooperate briefly in 1968, causing general strike, national standstill, leading to fall of de Gaulle

1968: Revived feminism encourages women to take control of lives, fight for equal pay, equal opportunities, reproductive rights

1970s–present: Separatists use terrorism in Northern Ireland (U.K.), Basque country (Spain), Chechnya (Russia)

1975: Franco dies; King Juan Carlos I commits to democracy

1979: Conservative Margaret Thatcher, first female prime minister of U.K., cuts government spending

1980s–present:Green Parties promote environmental causes

1980s–present:Far-right nationalistic parties gain support by blaming immigrants for economic downturn

  • 1999: Nazi sympathizer Jorg Heider elected Austrian P.M.

  • 2002: Anti-Muslim National Front party candidate Jean-Marie Le Pen finishes second in French presidential election

1990s–present: Protests against globalization (corporations, banks, environmental threats, unregulated labor) gain support