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European History



Fascism encompasses anti-democratic, anti-communist, anti-parliamentary, nationalistic political movements

  • Use propaganda, rallies, intimidation, beatings, paramilitary groups to gain power and popular support

  • Cult of personality around charismatic leader

  • Promise better times, national glory

  • Blame outsider groups for problems

  • Encourage traditional roles for women, family led by father

  • Nazism (National Socialism): German variant of fascism; violently anti-Semitic and racist; blamed Jews, liberals for WWI loss

Italy: Fascist Benito Mussolini takes control

  • 1922: Mussolini takes power after fascist march on Rome

  • 1929: Vatican and Italy make peace in Lateran Accord

  • 1935: Italy invades Ethiopia; France, Britain do not act

Germany:Adolf Hitler leads Nazi Party into power

  • 1919:Weimar Republic is liberal but weak

  • 1925: Hitler’s Mein Kampf (My Struggle) outlines Nazi plans

  • 1933: Hitler becomes chancellor

  • S.S. (protective force) police surveillance expands

  • 1935:Nuremberg Laws revoke Jewish citizenship

  • 1938:Kristallnacht: Nazis destroy Jewish stores, synagogues

Spain:Fascist Francisco Franco conquers Spain

  • 1936–1939:Spanish Civil War between fascists and republicans (supported by Communists); USSR aids republicans; Germany and Italy aid fascists; Britain, France remain neutral

France and Britain hope appeasement will avoid another war despite fascist aggression; believe Hitler’s goals to be limited