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Public Speaking & Presentations


 
 

Body Structures

Use one or several of these frameworks to make your argument in the body of your presentation.

  1. TOPICAL STRUCTURE

    Build up to a larger picture by looking at various aspects of one topic.

  2. CHRONOLOGICAL STRUCTURE

    Follow a timeline.

  3. SPATIAL STRUCTURE

    Create a mental map to relate your ideas, perhaps assisted by a visual aid.

  4. THE FIVE QUESTIONS

    Who? What? When? Where? and Why?

  5. ORDER OF IMPORTANCE

    Move from the least to the most important details, or vice versa.

  6. CAUSE-EFFECT

    Good for persuasive speeches. Show a result, then explain the process from cause to effect.

  7. ELIMINATION

    Remove all alternatives until there’s only one remaining option—yours!

  8. PROBLEM-SOLUTION

    Pose a problem and then offer a solution.

  9. THESIS-ANTITHESIS

    Describe one possible thesis, and then argue the opposite (the antithesis).

  10. LOGICAL

    1+1=2. Connect several details to make a larger point.

  11. YARDSTICK

    Lay out a set of criteria that you can use to evaluate your topic.

  12. MOTIVATIONAL

    Establish a need for your audience and then satisfy that need.

  13. CICERO’S SIX RULES OF DISCOURSE

    Start with an introduction, state the facts, show areas of disagreement or decisions, offer support for a point of view, eliminate opposing arguments, and conclude.

  14. RON HOFF’S STRUCTURE

    Introduce an issue of concern, offer a new point of view, back it up with evidence, offer a resolution, and suggest the next steps to take.